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疫苗的5ws和1h

疫苗的新闻比以往任何时候都多, with 新型冠状病毒肺炎 shining a spotlight on the importance of immunizations in preventing the spread of disease. 但近年来, 与过去几年相比,对接种疫苗的抵制也有所增加. Between the 新型冠状病毒肺炎 pandemic interrupting normal vaccination schedules and the growing fear and misinformation surrounding many, 如果不是全部的话, 疫苗, society has taken one step forward in innovation…and two steps back in community inoculation. 继续保护我们自己和我们的社区, 让我们花点时间来理解5w(和1H)!)的疫苗.

妇女在手臂上接种疫苗

疫苗是如何起作用的?

Think of a vaccine-preventable disease as a timed math test that your body has to take, 你的免疫系统就是使用的工具, 比如铅笔和计算器. 如果考试是关于一个全新的概念,而你从未为此学习过, 你可以通过考试,但是很难. And if your immune system isn’t strong or if you have other conditions that get in the way (for the analogy, you don’t have a calculator and your pencil 做n’t have an eraser) that makes passing even harder.


现在把疫苗当成你的家庭作业. 家庭作业不仅会告诉你问题的答案,还会告诉你 如何 解决问题. The homework is a simpler version than the test is so that you 可以 understand the basics before moving onto more advanced work, and it helps you build the confidence to solve the harder problem quickly when it counts.


如果你做了准备作业,并不能保证你能通过评分测试. 但是家庭作业给了你一个更好的机会,以优异的成绩通过, 尤其是当你没有计算器的时候. 即使你没有在考试中取得好成绩,你仍然可以获得及格分数.


类似的, 疫苗并不能保证你不会因为接触这种疾病而生病, 但这确实提高了你康复的几率. The vaccine 可以 help the illness symptoms be less severe and the results less deadly. 通过教会你的身体识别并产生抗体来应对疫苗, 一种威胁性较低的疾病, you’re setting your immune system up to be able to fight off the full thing if needed.


谁应该接种疫苗?

一般来说,任何人 可以 接种疫苗 应该 接种疫苗. There are some 疫苗 that are not recommended in certain age groups or situations. 带状疱疹疫苗, 例如, 不推荐给50岁以下的健康成年人吗, 水痘疫苗不应该给孕妇注射. 另一方面, 有一些疫苗特别推荐在怀孕期间使用, 比如流感疫苗和百白破, 因为来自母亲的抗体会遗传给新生儿. This transfer protects babies from the disease when they are still too young to receive the vaccine themselves.

By getting vaccinated if you 可以, you are protecting the people who 可以’t get the immunizations. There are several factors that 可以 prevent a person from getting the vaccine beyond not meeting the age or condition requirement, such as an allergy to an ingredient or a weakened immune system that 可以’t fight off even minor reactions as the body learns to recognize the infection and form antibodies.


我为什么要接种疫苗?

你对风疹的传播感到厌倦了吗? 担心小儿麻痹症的严重后果? 因为白喉爆发而旷工太多天? 多亏了疫苗,这些问题的答案通常都是否定的. 有很多传染性疾病, 排水, and even fatal diseases that have been practically eliminated in many parts of the world through 疫苗.


但随着疫苗近年来越来越被误解, we have seen an increase in cases of diseases that had previously been approaching eradication. 当新型冠状病毒肺炎大流行袭来时, many people fell behind in regular health check-ups; this caused many people’s vaccine schedules to fall behind.


因为越来越多的人错过或拒绝接种疫苗, 作为一个社会,我们就越无法免受这种疾病的侵袭. 已经根除的疾病很少, 也就是说,如果保护措施不到位,它们还能卷土重来. Vaccines aren’t 100 percent effective, but they 可以 still lessen the impact of the disease. 此外,疫苗的时代 work completely helps stop the spread of the disease to others who may not be able to 接种疫苗 or fight off the infection with or without the vaccine.


我该打什么疫苗?

现在有很多疫苗, and it 可以 be hard to keep track of which one 应该 be administered when — and that’s before factoring in new developments to improve protection or to address new diseases (like 新型冠状病毒肺炎). 这就是疫苗接种计划发挥作用的地方.


为孩子们安排的日程特别满. 第一个疫苗接种时间表于1995年正式确定, but the basis for the recommendations began back in the mid-1800s when Massachusetts public schools required vaccination against smallpox. 今天, there are 11 different 疫苗 that are recommended for babies 0 to 15 months; some of these 疫苗 require multiple doses over several months or even years.


当孩子成长为青少年时, it’s easier to fall behind in vaccinations simply due to less wellness check appointments. While it’s hard to miss seeing a flu shot reminder, other immunizations are easier to overlook. 其中一些疫苗是儿童时期接种疫苗的增强剂, like the Tdap vaccine; others, 比如脑膜炎球菌疫苗和人乳头瘤病毒疫苗, 建议在青少年早期开始. 没有疫苗接种, 这些细菌和病毒感染一旦感染就会造成严重后果, 包括但不限于脑损伤, 失去四肢, 癌症与死亡.


18岁以上, 没有一个固定的时间表建议, 但这并不意味着成年人不再需要疫苗. Continuing to get the annual flu shot and the tetanus boosters at the recommended interval is important, 就像保持最新的新疫苗一样.


有一些疫苗是专门推荐给成年人的. The 带状疱疹 vaccine is recommended for those 50 years or older; the pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for those 65 or older. Both also have several health conditions that would lead to a younger person getting the vaccine.


Keep in mind that these 疫苗 are all for disease prevention within the United States. If you are traveling, there are additional 疫苗 that are recommended if not required. Some countries require travelers to be vaccinated against yellow fever before entering their borders; other 疫苗, 包括伤寒和狂犬病疫苗, 是疾控中心还是国家推荐的.


我应该什么时候接种疫苗?

大多数疫苗全年都有, 也就是说人们随时都能得到他们想要的保护. 流感疫苗, 与此同时, is only readily available part of the year and is recommended for an even smaller window; though many organizations begin offering the flu vaccine as early as August, waiting to get the vaccine until late September or even late October 可以 offer a person more protection when the virus is most often circulating in North America.


在常规破伤风百日咳疫苗强化计划之外, 疫苗推荐到另一个季节…新生命的季节. Soon-to-be mothers 应该 get the vaccine to pass on antibodies to fight off whooping cough (the “p” of Tdap); other adults that plan to be around babies 应该 also get the vaccine.


旅行疫苗是另一个需要考虑时机的领域. 让疫苗有最好的机会预防疾病, 你应该在接种疫苗和旅行之间留出几个星期的时间. 与更常见的流感相比, 带状疱疹, 和百白破疫苗, 旅行疫苗可能没有那么容易拿到, 所以额外的计划是必须的.


我可以在哪里接种疫苗?

更常见的疫苗, 比如季节性流感, 带状疱疹, 肺炎, 和破伤风白喉百日咳混合疫苗, 在大多数地方都可以买到吗. 另一些人可能不会随叫随到, but many places 可以 request it on a pretty short timeline (sometimes even next day).


Here at our pharmacy, we have 新型冠状病毒肺炎, 肺炎, 带状疱疹, 和破伤风白喉百日咳混合疫苗 readily available. 我们也有季节性流感疫苗. 如果你需要不同的疫苗, 如果我们手头没有的话,就去问问有没有可用的, 我们很可能很快就能给您弄到. We are also only a phone call away if you want to check your eligibility for certain 疫苗 or if you have any other questions.



来源:

http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pregnancy/vacc-safety.html

http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/imz/child-adolescent.html

http://historyofvaccines.org/getting-vaccinated

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/travel-vaccines

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