晒伤,有毒的植物和虫子-天哪! 安全享受夏天的小贴士

我们都喜欢天气变暖,一天中的大部分时间太阳都出来了——这可能意味着野营旅行, 徒步旅行, 家庭度假, 去海滩, 其他有趣的户外活动也可能如此. When you and your family are heading outdoors, it’s important to take steps to protect yourself from the dangers of summer, 包括日晒, 有毒的植物, 和错误. 遵循这些简单的建议可以让你的夏日乐趣不会以不必要的身体疼痛告终.



There’s nothing wrong with catching some rays; in fact, ultraviolet (UV) rays are what helps the body produce Vitamin D on its own, 骨的重要部分, 免疫, 以及整体健康. 然而,过度暴露在同样的紫外线下,会产生严重的短期和长期后果.

The short-term risk of too much sun is a painful sunburn. Some medications can increase your sensitivity to UV light, making sun damage to your skin and eyes more likely. ¹ Tanning is how your body tries to provide a barrier to additional damage, but it is usually not enough protection in reality. 从长远来看, 过多的紫外线会导致皮肤过早老化(包括老年斑和皱纹)和皮肤癌, the most common type of cancer in the United States. ²

Sunlight is strong, with up to 80% of the rays getting through even on a cloudy day. ² So how do you get the benefits of the sun without taking on too much risk? With basic planning for your time outdoors, you can lower your risk of skin damage.


并不是所有的防晒霜都是一样的——如果你要努力涂防晒霜的话, make sure it’s one that actually has benefit. 即使是在室内, 如果你在阳光下,你应该使用防晒霜,因为UVA射线可以穿透窗户玻璃,伤害你的皮肤. Sunscreens labeled as “Broad Spectrum” work to block both UVA and UVB rays, 这意味着它将帮助你防止晒伤,并降低皮肤过早老化和皮肤癌的风险. 美国食品和药物管理局(FDA)建议使用防晒系数(SPF)大于或等于15的防晒霜.

Make sure you are reapplying sunscreen at least every 2 hours you are in the sun or if you towel off your body; reapply even more often if you are swimming or sweating a lot since sunscreen is not 水proof.


Sunscreen alone does not always prevent sunburn and skin damage. Pairing it with other preventative measures is important to offer the best protection. An easy step to take is to stick to the shade, especially between 10 am and 2 pm when the sun is at its most intense. ²

Not all shade will block all of the sun’s rays either; adding smart clothing options can give you more protection. 这样做并不总是有意义的, but long-sleeved shirts and pants offer the most protection, as the sun does damage when reaching bare skin. 干, dark clothing with a tight knit will likely offer a better barrier than dry, light-colored clothing — but in intense heat, 那可能太热了. ³ Consider what you can handle, even for part of the time you’re outside.

帽子也是一个很大的障碍! A hat with a wide brim that goes all the way around is your best bet, giving shade to not only your face but also your ears and neck. 在遮挡阳光方面,帆布是比稻草更好的材料. ³

当你采取所有这些措施来保护你的皮肤时,不要忘记保护你的眼睛. Not only can direct rays damage your eyes and the sensitive skin around your eyes, 沙子反射的光, 水, 更多也会造成伤害. Look for sunglasses that list a UV400 rating or “100% UV protection” on the label; darker tints don’t necessarily mean more protection, 所以检查标签很重要. 大一点的太阳镜,把两边包住,遮住整个眼窝,比小一点的太阳镜能提供更好的保护. ²


If you’re spending time outside in almost any part of the United States, there’s a chance of encountering a poisonous plant. 毒葛, 橡木, and sumac look different and grow differently, but they all can cause unpleasant effects if you encounter them. 幸运的是, 如果你无法避免这些植物,你可以采取一些简单的步骤来减少它们的影响.


毒葛 is the most common of the three plants and can be found growing in all 48 contiguous states (some more than others) and throughout most of Canada; though most common in the United States, 它也在全球范围内增长. Poison 橡木 is next most common and is primarily found in the western part of North America; poison sumac is the least common of the three and grows in the swampy areas of some southeastern US states. 这三种植物都喜欢潮湿, so they are often found growing near 水ways; they don’t do as well in higher elevations, 比如落基山脉. ⁵

即使在每个物种中, the appearance can vary; however, they can all be identified in the fall at least by their small berries, 是白色的, 奶油, 或黄色. Similarly shaped plants that are harmless do not grow berries of this kind. ⁵

当人们出现皮疹时,他们通常会意识到自己接触了这些植物中的一种. This is a reaction to the oily sap that is on pretty much every part of all three plants. While the oil is still on the skin, your skin may continue to react. 皮疹的严重程度通常与暴露程度相匹配——皮肤上的油脂越多,皮疹可能越严重. ⁶

The good news is that the rash isn’t contagious. 如果它看起来像扩散,那实际上是油从一个人转移到另一个人. 油会粘在园艺工具上, 织物, 甚至是宠物皮毛,直到它被洗掉, 所以,当你接触这些有毒植物时,清洁你的皮肤和随身携带的任何东西是非常必要的. ⁶


If you do have a run-in with a poisonous plant, or if you even just think you may have been exposed to the plant’s oils, washing off as soon as possible is the best way to prevent the oil’s spread. 这包括清洗你的皮肤, 你的衣服, and even other objects that could have touched the plant, 比如园艺工具和手套. The oil can stick to pet fur, too, so be sure to give your pet a bath quickly as well. Our pharmacy can make product recommendations, if needed.

If you do get blisters or a rash, try not to itch them and irritate the skin further. Instead, try over-the-counter options to treat the cause as well as the symptoms. 我们的药剂师可以提供去除皮肤油脂和止痒的建议. 如果皮疹没有好转,扩散或有脓,请立即与您的医疗保健提供者交谈. 如果你在暴露后出现高烧或呼吸困难,也应该寻求医疗咨询.


Bug bites aren’t just annoying, they can be dangerous. Beyond the painful itch they can leave behind, 许多虫子携带危险的疾病, 包括西尼罗河病毒和莱姆病. 在你走进虫子的世界之前, take precautions to make sure you don’t bring bad souvenirs back home with you.


驱蚊剂制造商在证明其产品安全有效后,可以向美国环境保护署(EPA)注册, including when used by pregnant or breastfeeding women.

EPA-registered repellents will have one of the below active ingredients:

  • 避蚊胺

  • Picaridin (known as KBR 3023 and icaridin outside the US)

  • IR3535

  • 柠檬桉树油(OLE)

  • Para-menthane-diol (PMD)

  • 2-undecanone

It’s important to pay attention to the label ingredients and instructions. 当应用, be sure to spray the repellent on any exposed skin; you do not need to spray it on skin that is covered by 你的衣服. 当与防晒霜同时使用时,应在使用驱蚊剂之前涂抹防晒霜.

如果你对孩子使用驱蚊剂, 你应该先把驱蚊剂喷在手上,然后再把它涂在孩子的脸上,而不是直接喷在脸上. 如果你的孩子是三岁或更小,确保有效成分不是OLE或PMD.

Wearing long sleeves and pants when possible, 还有高袜子和靴子, can offer an additional barrier between you and the bugs. 你可以用0来对待你的衣服.5% permethrin to add more protection (or you can buy pre-treated clothing).


知道这些虫子可能在哪里——并限制你在这些地方遇到它们的机会——是防止被虫子咬伤的一个简单步骤. 蜱虫, 例如, like wooded areas with a lot of ground cover, 像高高的草和厚厚的落叶. 坚持走小路中间和地面覆盖较少的地区可以帮助降低蜱虫叮咬你的机会. ⁸

Mosquitos, meanwhile, flourish in humidity and like to lay their eggs near standing 水. 定期清理你家附近的湿气,尽你所能限制蚊子的数量, 在你的房子外面的黑暗区域,并确保水没有形成水坑或水池在你的财产的任何地方.

Even if you take all the necessary precautions, bugs may still get through to your skin. If you have been somewhere you may have come across a tick, it’s important to check yourself over immediately when you get home. 蜱虫 can catch a ride on pets, clothes, and gear, so give everything a good check. Showering within two hours of getting home is recommended by the CDC, 因为它可以帮助清除不附着的蜱虫,给你一个更好的机会彻底检查. 蜱虫 tend to gravitate toward certain areas of the body: ⁸

  • 腋下

  • 耳朵里和耳朵周围

  • 肚脐内侧

  • 膝盖后部

  • 在头发里面和周围

  • 在两腿之间

  • 腰部周围

关注你的周围环境和天气对度过一个安全的夏天大有帮助. 你可以采取一些简单的措施来防止户外活动给你的夏日乐趣带来负面影响——如果你真的要面对享受户外活动带来的不那么严重的后果的话, make sure to stop by our pharmacy f或治疗 options!


¹ http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/radiation/ultraviolet.htm

² http://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/tips-stay-safe-sun-sunscreen-sunglasses

³ http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/skin/basic_info/sun-safety.htm




http://www.cdc.gov / ncezid dvbd /About/ prevent-bites.html

http://www.cdc.gov /Ticks/避免/ on_people.html